Swoon Over Welsh Lovespoons

Whenever I needed a pick-me-up during my days working in Miami University’s Walter Havighurst Special Collections, I’d report directly to the “AY11” section of the shelves, browse Helen Coulter Ball’s collection of gift books, select a volume, sink to the floor and lose myself in the pages of a real Victorian treasure.

Engraved portrait of Elizabeth Jane Somerville, from an 1833 copy of Fisher’s Drawing Room Scrap-Book in the Walter Havighurst Special Collections. If you know my formal name, you’ll know why I like this.

Engraved portrait of Elizabeth Jane Somerville, from an 1833 copy of Fisher’s Drawing Room Scrap-Book in the Walter Havighurst Special Collections. If you know my formal name, you’ll know why I like this.

Gift books are elegant bound volumes that were published annually between the 1820s and the 1860s. Titles like The Token of Friendship, The Gift of Affection and Forget Me Not contained selections of fiction and poetry written by well-known authors like William Wordsworth, Sir Walter Scott, Washington Irving and Edgar Allan Poe, and were illustrated with beautiful steel engravings of women, children, animals and nature scenes. Intended to be an appropriate present for a man to give to the lady he was courting, a gift book included an ornate presentation plate upon which its giver could write a special message to its recipient.

Recently, I found another charming expression of affection — not on the shelves, but in a tucked-away place in the Short North of Columbus.

In Wales, there’s a precious tradition of showing love by the giving of lovespoons. In Columbus, local artist Laura Jenkins Gorun celebrates her Welsh heritage by designing and carving lovespoons. Several examples of her work are on display and available for purchase at the Studios on High Gallery, at 686 North High Street.

In the 17th century, a Welsh man would carve a wooden spoon to declare his love and commitment to a lady. Carved from a single piece of wood from sycamore, oak, walnut, beech, boxwood, yew, holly or even fruit trees, the spoon was decorated using an extensive vocabulary of designs to convey heartfelt sentiments the carver wanted to convey to the spoon’s recipient. The more elaborate the carving, the more feelings it conveyed. Flowers represent affection; diamonds, good fortune; a wheel, support; a lock, security; a dragon, protection; and a heart for love. Intertwined vines signaled togetherness; an anchor indicated that the giver wanted to settle down with the recipient.

Welsh lovespoon

A ball in a cage suggested that love would be kept safe. The number of balls, links in a chain or captive rings represents a significant number, such as years together, or the number of future children.Welsh lovespoon

If a lady accepted a spoon from a man, it meant that she returned his feelings and their courtship would begin. She would carry her spoon with her, tied into her apron strings, for all to see.

At first, the custom was intended to make a practical gift more special by decorating an essential tool that the recipient would use every day. It also proved a man’s ability to provide for a future wife and family. But as the tradition continued, the spoons became less practical and more ornamental. The spoon’s handle was broadened so that its surface could be adorned with a carved designs like initials, a word like cymru (Welsh for love), or filigrees.Welsh lovespoon

Today, lovespoons are given for any special occasion, such as weddings, anniversaries, christenings, holidays and housewarmings. Modern spoons like Laura’s are also made from mahogany, pine, honey locust, basswood and Spanish cedar.  You can even commission her to make an extra-special spoon for your beloved.

Welsh lovespoonLaura also teaches woodworkers how to carve their own lovespoons and sand them for a smooth finish. After using a carving knife and a curved spoon gouge to reach deep into the bowl of the spoon, carvers boil either the blank or the finished spoon to rid it of sap, adding salt to the water or rubbing salt on later if they want to bleach the spoon. Finally, the carver rubs the spoon with linseed oil, if it’s intended for decoration, or with vegetable oil if the spoon is to be used.

Laura will teach one-day basic spoon-carving classes at WoodCraft of Columbus, at the corner of Bethel and Kenny Roads, on Friday, July 22; Friday, August 12 and Saturday, August 20. For more information about Laura’s classes and work, see http://www.jenkinslovespoons.com

This month, Laura teamed with http://www.jenkinslovespoons.com, a local artist specializing in fine beadwork and floristry, to create Crafting Enchantment, an exhibit at Studios on High Gallery which continues through May 31.Beadwork by Mikelle Hickman-Romine

Together, the pair created wearable symbols of relationships that are designed to bring blessings to the wearer. Beautiful gifts include brooches made from magnolia wood, applewood, gold and sterling silver leaf, citrine, bronze, amethyst and iolite; a pendant made from ebony and bloodwood, gold leaf and garnets; and a crown made from cherry twigs, gold leaf, glass and bronze. Earrings are made of applewood, gold and sterling leaf; dyed maple burl, rock crystal and silk; and buckeye, ebony, tiger’s eye and pearls with beadwork.Brooch by Laura Jenkins Gorun and Mikelle Hickman-Romine

FWelsh lovespoonor more on Welsh lovespoons, see History of Lovespoons: The Art and Traditions of a Romantic Craft, by David Western; Carving Spoons, by Shirley Adler; and “Lovespoons in Perspective,” Herbert E. Roese’s article in the 1988 Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies. The oldest example of a Welsh lovespoon (dating from 1667) is on display at the St. Fagans National History Museum in Wales. Click here to see some lovespoons from its collection.  Watch Bryn Terfel, the Welsh baritone opera and concert singer, talk about them in “Mother’s Love,” from the May 12, 2013 broadcast of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir’s Music & the Spoken Word.

 

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In Grandview Steht Ein Hofbräuhaus

Guten Tag, Elizabeth!,” the subject line of an e-mail read.

Vielen Dank!,” I said to myself as I immediately accepted an invitation to attend AAA’s “Bavaria Night with Viking Cruises,” a festive affair at the Hofbräuhaus Columbus that featured a German dinner buffet and an informative presentation about European river cruising.

A noisy, crowded German beer hall might not be the place you’d readily associate with me, but it’s the perfect place to unleash my enthusiasm for my German heritage. Give me the chance to load up on Schnitzel and Spätzle, to wear some of my collection of Trachten folk clothes I’ve bought in Bavaria, and to hear traditional German music played on an accordion, and I’ll start hopping and stepping with anticipation, just like I was back learning how to dance the polka with Eric from my Kinderchor days.

Ever since the Hofbräuhaus Columbus opened in November 2014, I’ve been trying unsuccessfully to entice people to go there with me. The familiar refrain repeated: “It’s too loud.” “It’s too far away for lunch.” “I’d rather go elsewhere.” “We’re going here instead.”

I understand,” I politely answered. But inside, a Blitzkrieg was raging.  “The place is supposed to be loud!  Grandview is not as far away as Munich!  And I’d rather go there for once than always going elsewhere!,” I thought to myself.   “Gott im Himmel, was für Dummköpfe!”Hofbräuhaus Columbus

So I relished the moment when I finally arrived at Hofbräuhaus Columbus, wearing a blue-and-white outfit accessorized with my heart-shaped pin painted with the blue-and-white-lozenge version of the Bavarian flag and my “Hirsch” Trachtentuch neckerchief with leaping blue stags on a polka-dotted green background.

Outside, I admired the Maibaum, a Bavarian tradition dating to the 16th century where a pole painted in Bavarian blue and white and decorated with emblems of local trade and craft guilds is raised on May 1. The traditional dark Maibock beer is brewed for the occasion. Hofbräuhaus Columbus

Inside, Gemütlichkeit was running rampant, thanks to a warm welcome from my New York redeye friends Mary Jo, Michelle and Zack. First, I checked out the gift shop, laden with plush bears wearing Lederhosen and jars of all my favorite German groceries, like Lowensenf mustard and Hengstenberg sauerkraut and red cabbage.

Hofbräuhaus Columbus

Then, I took a seat at one of several high-topped tables lining the Goodale Street side of the building, and the fun began.

Hofbräuhaus Columbus

To celebrate National Pretzel Day, hundreds of us snacked on soft pretzels made with Munich-imported ingredients and served with homemade Bier Cheese for dipping. 

Hofbräuhaus Columbus

Some sipped Reisling wine from the Rhine region; others hoisted glass steins of beer brewed on site from original recipes handed down by the Duke of Bavaria over 400 years ago, choosing from four year-round beer varieties, plus seasonal specialties like a pale lager called the Hopfen Spezial.

Hofbräuhaus Columbus

Then, we filled our plates with a salad of mixed greens, tomatoes, cucumbers, sweet corn, homemade seasoned pretzel croutons and cucumber dressing; grilled Weisswürst and Münchner Bratwurst; Schnitzel Wiener Art, a breaded and fried pork cutlet served with cranberry sauce; German potato salad; buttered Spätzle; imported German sauerkraut…

Hofbräuhaus Columbusand a slice of traditional homemade Bavarian Apfel Strudel with vanilla sauce.

Hofbräuhaus Columbus

We got the lowdown on Rhine and Danube river cruising, a relaxing travel experience that offers a unique, ever-changing mural of scenery to behold from the sun deck of a longship vessel. Docking in the heart of historic cities along the Rhine — like Basel, Rüdesheim, Heidelberg, Strasbourg, Cologne, Koblenz, Speyer, Breisach — and the Danube — including Budapest, Nuremberg, Vienna, Melk, Passau, Würzburg and Bamberg, we’d attend culturally enriching experiences like performances, lectures and visits to places like the Regensburg factory where BMW “is defusing the demographic time bomb.”

Cruising the Danube, May 1997

Cruising the Danube, May 1997

As a veteran of cruises on the Danube and the waterways of Holland and Belgium, I can attest to the uniqueness and convenience of this travel experience. The only thing that’s holding me back from booking is the remotest possibility of being afflicted again by the nightmarish norovirus that led to some equally nightmarish episodes on the streets of Bruges, Belgium.

What I will do is return, post haste, to Hofbräuhaus Columbus. Modeled after the legendary Hofbräuhaus in Munich, Germany, the place is a fine substitute when you’re feeling homesick for the original and aren’t up for the plane ride.

We’re fortunate to have visited the real Hofbräuhaus more than a few times. My mother went there with her fellow Stuttgart-based U.S. Department of State schoolteachers in September 1966 …Hofbräuhaus, Munich

Here I am on my first visit there in May 2000.  Not everywhere in the Hofbräuhaus is loud.  Check out the charming tablecloth and carved wooden chair!  

Hofbräuhaus, Munich

The Hofbräuhaus story begins in 1589, when Wilhelm V, Duke of Bavaria built a brewery in Munich that would produce beer that was just as good as what he was importing from Einbeck in Lower Saxony. He recruited the brewmaster of Geisenfeld Monastery to supervise the construction of a Hofbräuhaus (the “ducal brewery”) and be its first master brewer.

Hofbräuhaus, Munich

Hofbräuhaus, Munich, 1966

When Wilhelm’s son, Maximilian I, took the reins, he replaced the popular, dark and heavy Braunbier with a lighter Weissbier that could only be brewed and sold at his Hofbräuhaus. Demand was so great for this beer that the Hofbräuhaus couldn’t brew it fast enough to keep up, so a new, bigger Hofbräuhaus was built on Munich’s Platzl, where the Hofbräuhaus still stands today.

When Maximilian’s son, Ludwig, married Princess Therese von Sachsen-Hilburghausen in October 1810, he threw a party for 40,000 guests in a field on the west side of Munich. The party was so successful that he repeated it every year. And that is the origin of Munich’s famous Oktoberfest.

By 1828, the Hofbräuhaus had become so legendary that Ludwig issued a decree granting a license for Hofbräuhaus to serve beer and food to the working-class public. Some bought the beer to take home to drink, but others sat together and socialized at the brewery, drinking beer while discussing the latest news and current events. They could either bring their own cheese, sausages and bread to eat, or they could buy food at the brewery.

Before long, the Hofbräuhaus had become the place for clubs to meet. Many reserved a table where their members could congregate on a regular basis, and the Stammtisch was born. Since only the members of a particular group could sit at that table at the time the table was reserved, ornate signs were placed on or above these tables. Some patrons brought their own beer steins, which they could store in a cupboard.

Hofbräuhaus, Munich

As Munich’s population grew, so did the demand for beer. To anticipate demand, the Hofbräuhaus started brewing excess beer and storing it in cellars. To keep them cool, chestnut trees were planted over the cellars to provide shade. Before long, empty beer barrels were placed in the garden, and people started drinking their beer standing in the garden under the shade of the chestnut trees.

Hofbräuhaus, Munich

Locals, tourists and famous people started flocking to the Hofbräuhaus, and haven’t stopped since. Somerset Maugham usually ordered a radish and sausages to enjoy with his beer. The author Thomas Wolfe enjoyed his visit to Munich in the 1930s so much that the main character of his book, The Web and the Rock, visits Munich and loves “the roaring tumult of the Hofbrau Haus,” where he “felt the warmth, the surge, the powerful communion” of the locals as they “gulped down from stone mugs liter after liter of the cold and powerful dark beer.” Since 1935, Hofbräuhaus visitors have been singing the famous song, “In München steht ein Hofbräuhaus – oans, zwoa, g’suffa!” (In Munich there’s a Hofbräuhaus – one, two, down the hatch!)Hofbräuhaus

In 2003, the first Hofbräuhaus franchise in America opened in Newport, Kentucky, not far from Cincinnati, Munich’s sister city. Since then, others have opened in Las Vegas, Pittsburgh, Chicago and Cleveland. Ours in Columbus was the sixth to open.

For more on the Hofbräuhaus, see Munich: Hofbräuhaus & History: Beer, Culture, & Politics, by Jeffrey S. Gaab.

Posted in Columbus, Food, Germany, History, Travel | Leave a comment

Inside Dr. Sloan’s Library, It Feels Like It’s Still 1914

I passed the elegant buff-colored brick and gray stone building with an Italian tile roof twice: first, on my way to a 2013 birthday tour of the Airstream factory in Jackson Center; then, while traversing Union and Logan Counties in search of covered bridges last summer.Sloan Library

Both times, I noticed a bronze bas-relief plaque of a man’s portrait above the building’s main entrance. I wondered what this magnificent structure was doing in Zanesfield, a small Ohio village with a population of 197. What I discovered when I went to see it recently was truly worth the trip. Join me on a virtual visit to the Earl Sloan Library.

Our story begins in the mid-19th century, when Andrew Sloan emigrated from Ireland and set up shop making horse harnesses in Zanesfield. Known for his ability with horses, he became a self-taught veterinarian, rubbing their shoulders when they got stiff from spring ploughing with a strong-smelling liniment he concocted. While the village vet was developing a name for himself among the community, his son, Earl, was attending school, developing such a reputation for mischief that he earned the nickname “Spider.” By the time he was 15, Earl had become an apprentice harness-maker.

In 1871, 23-year-old Earl went to St. Louis, Missouri to join his brother, Foreman, who ran a livery and bought and traded horses. The two peddled their father’s horse liniment at farms, horse fairs and carnivals. When one of their customers discovered that the liniment relieved back discomfort in humans as well, the brothers started advertising the liniment as “good for man and beast.” Sales took off, and before long, Earl was so sSloan Libraryuccessful that he moved to Chicago. There, he started running ads for Sloan’s Liniment in the evening newspapers and on streetcars, touting its healing powers for rheumatism, arthritis, lumbago, muscular aches, and minor strains and sprains.

Liniment is a watery substance that is rubbed on the skin to increase circulation, bringing warmth to relieve stiff, sore muscles. Other active ingredients in Sloan’s Liniment include camphor oil to give it a strong smell; methyl salicylate; turpentine; oil of pine; and extract of capsicum, the active ingredient in cayenne pepper that makes it hot. Capsaicin causes the sensation of heat, which reduces pain in the body. It is also used to treat nerve pain in people who have had the shingles.

Sloan LibraryConcocting a marketing scheme that encompassed everything from advertisements to special publications like cookbooks, Earl targeted housewives to buy his product since they were the main purchasers of items for the home. He added the title “Dr.” to his name, added his picture and signature to the label to set his product apart from other liniments, trademarked it and incorporated his business. In 1904, he moved to Boston, continuing his successful business until he sold it for $1 million in 1913 to William R. Warner & Company, the maker of Listerine.

During the summer of 1912, Earl wrote some friends from his Zanesfield days, told them about his plans to visit his hometown the following summer, and suggested that they organize a reunion. The friends took him literally. In August 1913, Earl returned to Zanesfield to find that a three-day festival had been organized in his honor, including a parade and an address by Ohio Governor James Cox.

Sloan LibraryDuring Earl’s visit, he heard that a rumor was circulating about his building a $40,000 library for Zanesfield. Although it was untrue, he thought about how he was unable to borrow books as a child from a private library because he was considered too poor, and was determined to establish a place where all children would have access to books. He agreed to provide $6,000 for a building and an additional $2,000 to purchase items for the collection. When Earl returned to Zanesfield for the library’s dedication on September 8, 1914, he also created a $20,000 endowment for heating the building and maintaining its grounds.

When Earl died in 1923, $10,000 was added to the library’s endowment. When his wife, Bertha, passed away in 1946, it grew by another $15,000. Both Sloans are buried in Zanesfield’s cemetery.

Sloan Library continues today, serving Zanesfield and its surrounding community by offering a circulating collection of books and periodicals, as well as resources for computing and genealogy, including a very special family tree. A social hall and full kitchen on the lower level are available to rent for community activities. An annual book sale takes place during Memorial Day weekend.

Sloan Library

The library’s interior is just as magnificent as its exterior. There’s a pervading feeling that you’ve been transported back to 1914 when you step inside. No wonder; the library had its first telephone installed in 1994.Sloan Library

All of its woodwork, bookcases, furniture and fireplace fixtures are original. Vintage light fixtures are operated with ceramic button fixtures.

Sloan Library

Many non-circulating books from the library’s original collection remain in glass-fronted barrister-style bookcases, complete with their original handwritten check-out cards, accession numbers, and gift bookplate. Several pristine volumes in the “Peeps at Many Lands” series describe the history and customs of several foreign countries. Elbert Hubbard, best known as the founder of the Roycroft Arts and Crafts community in East Aurora, New York, is said to have selected several books for the collection, including his edition of Ralph Waldo Emerson’s Self-Reliance.Sloan Library

A portrait of Earl painted by his friend, a local artist named Warren Cushman, hangs in the main reading room.Sloan Library

Another Cushman painting that is said to have been exhibited at the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago hangs across the room.

Sloan Library

Two magnificent grandfather clocks – one belonging to Earl, and the other an unusual Masonic clock — keep time in the reading rooms.Sloan Library

A quilt hanging on the wall recalls the outdoor pageant based on the life of Simon Kenton and Isaac Zane that took place during the 1913 reunion honoring Earl.DSCN3040

Kenton (1753-1836) was a fearless frontiersman who worked as a land surveyor, a military Indian scout and a British spy, but he is also known for surviving capture by Native Americans, who tortured him and attempted to burn him at the stake. Later in his life, he moved to a log cabin at nearby New Jerusalem and was buried there. In 1865, his remains were moved to Urbana, but a monument marking his original grave still stands.

Nine-year-old Zane was living with his family in Virginia when he was taken captive by the Wyandot tribe in 1763 and taken to Ohio when the tribe established a village that became present-day Zanesfield. Although he escaped at 18, Zane returned to the Wyandot five years later, married Chief Tarhe’s daughter, Myeerah, and settled there. Zanesfield was named for him.

Ebeneezer, the Zanes’ oldest child, built his own cabin nearby in 1805. After a Methodist preacher preached to natives and settlers in the area, a circuit rider held a mission meeting at Ebeneezer’s cabin in November 1819. The cabin continued to serve as a Methodist meeting place until 1832, so it was named a United Methodist Historic Site. In 1997, the cabin was rebuilt, using some of the original logs, near its original site, just steps from the library on Sandusky Street.Ebeenezer Zane cabin

Take a scenic 15-minute drive via OH-540 to Bellefontaine and treat yourself to a satisfying meal at Don’s Downtown Diner, which my friends the Pramiks recommended it to me after writing their blog post about it. Located one block south of the Logan County Courthouse at 208 S. Main St., this tidy little diner offers local produce, hand-cut fries, deep-fried pickles, and shakes made with ice cream from Young’s Jersey Dairy in Yellow Springs. It’s best known for its steak burgers that come from a local, family-owned butcher shop. Man vs. Food’s Adam Richman would approve of the “Fatty Patty,” featuring bacon and cheese served between two Krispy Kreme doughnuts, or the “Baby Matilda,” made with two half-pound patties, two grilled cheese sandwiches, bacon and cheddar cheese.

Don's Downtown DinerSloan’s Liniment continues to be available on the market today, still packaged in a carton and a labeled bottle depicting the mustachioed doctor.

The Earl Sloan Library is located at 2817 Sandusky Street in Zanesfield. Visit http://sloanlibraryoh.org/index.html  for more information. For more on Earl Sloan and his library, read “For Man and Beast: Sloan’s Liniment,” by James Harvey Young, in the September/October 2001 issue of the Ohio Historical Society’s TIMELINE, and Sloan’s page in Ohio Builds a Nation: A Memorial to the Pioneers and the Celebrated Sons of the “Buckeye” State, by Samuel Harden Stille.  

Posted in Architecture, Food, History, Libraries, Ohio | Leave a comment

Mariann, Mamie, John and Patrick Would Have Breathed Easier If Carrie Nelson Black Helped Them

Tuberculosis killed one out of nine people in Columbus in the early 1900s.

In 1902, it took the life of my 40-year-old great-great-grandmother, Mariann Corcoran O’Connor, who was both the child and the wife of Irish immigrants. Three of her five young children — Mamie, John and Patrick — had already succumbed to tuberculosis. (You can read more of their story here.)

Carrie Nelson Black

Carrie Nelson Black

People were understandably fearful of tuberculosis, which was also known as consumption or the white plague. The sick poor were most at risk, since they could not afford the nutritious food and medical care that they needed to survive. Their plight became the cause of Carrie Nelson Black, whose own loss of her 20-year-old sister to tuberculosis in 1874 prompted her to assume what she saw as her civic responsibility: caring for those who were less fortunate and improving the state of health in Columbus.

Mrs. Black was the subject of this year’s Friends of Nursing History lecture, which Joanne Spoth, president and CEO of The Breathing Association, gave recently at the Ohio State University’s Medical Heritage Center as part of its History of the Health Sciences lecture series.

In 1898, Mrs. Black said goodbye to her husband, Franklin County Probate Judge Samuel L. Black (who also was mayor of Columbus from 1897 to 1898), and their three children; left their elegant home that once stood at 1000 Bryden Road; and embarked on a journey to Chicago and Boston to study nursing care. She returned to Columbus with a nurse to begin caring for the sick poor and founded the Instructive District Nurses Association, the Columbus Health Department’s first home nursing service. That association is now known as LifeCare Alliance.

Residence of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel L. Black, 1000 Bryden Road, Columbus

Residence of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel L. Black,   1000 Bryden Road, Columbus

Mrs. Black’s humanitarian efforts continued in 1901, when she became the director of the Ohio Society for the Prevention of Tuberculosis, now known as the Ohio Public Health Association. In 1906, she traveled to Boston, New York and Chicago to visit tuberculosis dispensary services in order to discover best practices she could model in Columbus. That same year, she founded the Columbus Society for the Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis to provide nutrition, medical care and sanatorium services to people who could not afford proper medical care. Its first meeting was held at the Chittenden Hotel.

A 1906 pennant from the Columbus Tuberculosis Society.

A 1906 pennant from the Columbus Tuberculosis Society.

Samuel Prescott Bush, the founder of Buckeye Steel Castings and the ancestor of two Bush presidents, was a founding trustee of the Columbus Tuberculosis Society. He chaired its Sanitation Committee to improve the sanitary conditions in Columbus businesses as a way to decrease the spread of tuberculosis.

In those days, isolation, rest and spending prolonged periods out in the fresh air, regardless of the weather, were the only known ways to cure tuberculosis. To prevent the spread of the disease, nurses with the Columbus Tuberculosis Society visited the homes of those most susceptible to the disease, bringing milk and eggs to patients who had the best chances of survival.

In 1906, the society opened a free tuberculosis dispensary at 40 S. Third St. to provide medical care to people needing consultation and treatment. Although the building was razed to make way for the parking lot to the south of the former Columbus Dispatch headquarters, an historical marker was dedicated there on December 11, 2006.

Historical marker, 40 S. Third St.

Separated from their loved ones to protect them from infection, tuberculosis patients were lonely. In 1907, Mrs. Black urged Franklin County officials to build a camp with the first tuberculosis cottages in the Glen Echo neighborhood of Columbus at the north end of Summit Street. In 1913, the camp moved to Minerva Park on Cleveland Avenue. The Franklin County Tuberculosis Sanatorium opened the following year.

In 1913, Mrs. Black founded the Open Air School at 2571 Neil Avenue, near Hudson Street, for children who were either predisposed to tuberculosis or were living in homes where there was at least one case of the disease. To take advantage of the healing powers of fresh air, the school’s windows were opened year-round, and children were given hats and hooded woolen coats to wear.

Nightingale Cottage

Nightingale Cottage

Mrs. Black bought 20 acres of land on Brice Road in 1931, and began construction on Nightingale Cottage, a home for children who had been exposed to tuberculosis. A chest examination, immunization against diphtheria and a vaccination for smallpox were required for admission. The Columbus Board of Education provided a teacher, and a school schedule was arranged so that children could continue their education while receiving nutritious food, plenty of rest, fresh air and exercise. Nightingale Cottage was demolished in August 1973 to make way for Interstate 71.

Before her death in 1936, Mrs. Black had the satisfaction of knowing that the rates of death from tuberculosis in Columbus had dropped to one out of 20 people, thanks to her efforts.

Mobile chest x-ray station

Promotional item for mobile chest x-ray station

Since then, the Columbus Tuberculosis Society has continued Mrs. Black’s cause to assist the underserved. At first, only stethoscopes could be used to diagnosis tuberculosis, but other ways began to be developed. It introduced tuberculosis skin tests in Franklin County schools and began a mass screening program with a mobile clinic in the 1930s; followed with portable chest x-ray services and antibiotics in the 1950s. As tuberculosis became controllable, it expanded its programs to focus on diseases resulting from tobacco use; emphysema; lung cancer; and chronic lung conditions like asthma and bronchitis. Undergoing several different name changes along the way, the organization is now known as The Breathing Association. Its programs provide the poor with medical supplies, prescription medications and assistance paying for home heating and cooling through the Home Energy Assistance Program.

The program also gave me an opportunity to learn more about the Medical Heritage Center, the special collections library of OSU’s Health Sciences Library that preserves, promotes and provides instruction about the history of health care in central Ohio through rare books, archival collections and medical artifacts.

This style of uniform was worn by students at the Ohio State University College of Nursing from 1916 to 1950.

This style of uniform was worn by students at the Ohio State University College of Nursing from 1916 to 1950.

Through May 15, the library hosted Every Necessary Care and Attention: George Washington and Medicine, a traveling exhibition from the National Library of Medicine. 

very Necessary Care and Attention: George Washington and Medicine exhibit panelSix banners illustrated the concern Washington had for the health and safety of his family, his Revolutionary War troops and his staff and slaves who worked on his Mount Vernon plantation.

Popular 17th-century books of home health remedies and herbal treatments, such as The Family Physician, and the House Apothecary and The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy, were a part of the Washingtons’ personal library. He also had a medicine chest containing glass bottles, a set of scales, and a mortar and pestle.

Washington’s soldiers were at risk for ailments like dysentery, septic wounds, smallpox and camp fever.  To protect them, Washington made decisions about food storage, placement of latrines, disposal of animal carcasses, and general provisions for clothing and shelter on the battlefield. Throughout the Revolutionary War, he carried a bottle of musk, used in perfumes and medicines.

At Mount Vernon, he ensured that slaves receive every necessary care and attention when they were unwell. A dental scaler set is said to have been used to clean their teeth.  Take a closer look at Washington’s traveling dental kit, circa 1795, with a container for tooth powder, tooth brush, tongue scraper, and traveling case.

George Washington's dentures, as pictured in very Necessary Care and Attention: George Washington and MedicineBoth George and Martha Washington wore spectacles for reading as they got older. They also wore false teeth in their later years. This set of Washington’s dentures, circa 1790-1799, are made of human teeth, cow teeth, and elephant ivory, held on a lead base with brass wires and steel springs.  For more on these famous dentures, click here.

The Medical Heritage Center is located on the fifth floor of the Ohio State University Health Sciences Library, in Prior Hall, at 376 W. 10th Ave.

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Artists Hatched A Plan To Embellish Ostrich Eggs

Scrambled, fried, poached, boiled, pickled in beet juice, or whipped to a light, fluffy consistency, eggs provide essential protein, vitamins and minerals to sweet and savory dishes alike.

Their smooth shells are so naturally lovely that they were pursued by Victorian-era gentlemen who collected them as a hobby. The naturally pastel-hued shells of eggs from Araucana chickens inspired Martha Stewart to create a line of 22 paints for Fine Paints of Europe, with beautiful names like Pinfeather, Oceana, Silkie White, Crevecoeur, Golden Campine and Buff Cochin. And Augustus the Strong, ruler of Saxony, collected ostrich eggs that silversmiths and jewelers fashioned into precious objects, storing them in a lavish treasure chamber known as the Historic Green Vault in Dresden, Germany.

Even their ovoid shape is artistic. The dominant shape of Northwest Native American art also inspired children’s book author and illustrator Jan Brett to use the ovoid as the basis of her signature hedgehog drawings. (Click here and you’ll see what I mean.)  They famously inspired Peter Carl Fabergé to create jeweled masterpieces for Russian Tsars Alexander III and Nicholas II to give to their wives and mothers as Easter gifts.

But when their shells are painted, dyed, lacquered, adorned with photos and collages, highlighted with gold leaf and glass, or serve as the surface for sculptures and pen-and-ink drawings, eggs can also be considered as works of art.

Forty-eight embellished ostrich eggs are the subject of Art 360°: Contemporary Art Hatching Across Ohio, an exhibition currently on view at the Columbus Museum of Art. Using a range of media — from oil, acrylic and watercolor paints to fiber and ceramics, photography, printmaking, pen and ink, and sculpture — Ohio artists transformed these eggs into unique works of art.

Working with a three-dimensional object can be a challenge for artists used to two-dimensional creations, but all accomplished the task in extraordinary ways. Here are a few of my favorites.

Mariana Smith employed oil paint and silver to create Acqua Alta, an ethereal view of Venetian landmarks like the Bridge of Sighs, the Doge’s Palace, the Rialto Bridge and St. Mark’s Basilica.Art 360°, Columbus Museum of Art

Oeuf Couture was Debra Dawson’s iridescent, glittery and fashionable answer to the challenge.Art 360°, Columbus Museum of Art

Blue transferware porcelain inspired Sophie Knee to create this gilded monotype relief of leaves.Art 360°, Columbus Museum of Art

Josh Sutton transformed his ostrich egg into The Leap of Life, a sculpture made with 3D printing and digital sculpting.Art 360°, Columbus Museum of Art

Look at the detail Amy Casey captured with acrylic paint and a fine brush in Knot.Art 360°, Columbus Museum of Art

In Broken Melodies-Discordant Fragments, Audra Skuodas transformed a collage of tiny fragments of sheet music into a kaleidoscopic masterpiece.Art 360°, Columbus Museum of Art

The exhibition opened at the Southern Ohio Museum & Cultural Center in Portsmouth from January through March of this year. It will remain on view at the Columbus Museum of Art through August 14, 2016. Next, it travels to the Massillon Museum, where it will be on display from October 15 to the end of 2016.

To watch footage of a Broad and High segment about the exhibition that aired on WOSU earlier this year, click here

For more about Victorian-era egg collecting, see The Lost Victorian Art of Egg Collecting,” from the March 25, 2016 issue of The Atlantic.

Posted in Art, Birds, Columbus, Museums | Leave a comment

On Magee Marsh’s Famous Boardwalk, I Spotted Warblers, Blackbirds and Kenn Kaufman

My mind wanders a lot.

Sometimes it plods at a deliberate pace, pestering me about things I need to do. Other times, it skips merrily along over thrilling thoughts that make me daydream during meetings. Worst of all, it races at the most inopportune times, crowding out the thoughts it’s supposed to be thinking, like the time one Sunday at Mass when it suddenly stopped participating and started trying to figure out what week of Lent we were in based on what I had for lunch the past couple of Fridays.

I cut myself some slack because distraction happens to the best of us — even Monsignor Moloney, who confessed in this week’s bulletin to thinking about what he was going to fix for dinner as he recited an important prayer.

When my mind started flitting along during a recent piano recital, I was so glad that I thanked it for helping me remember something important. As I listened to Angelin Chang play “L’Alouette lulu” (“Woodlark”) from Catalogues d’oiseaux (Catalogue of Birds), by Olivier Messiaen, an ornithologist who was fascinatMagee Marshed by birdsong, it whispered, “Shouldn’t it be about time for all those birds to be at Magee Marsh?”  Why, yes, it was!

May at the Magee Marsh Wildlife Area on Lake Erie means some of the best birdwatching opportunities in North America. During spring migration, scads of songbirds stop at Magee Marsh to rest on their trip north. The early birds start arriving toward the end of April, the place is teeming with warblers by early May, and they keep coming until May 25th or so, depending on the weather. Dozens of thrushes, vireos, flycatchers and orioles are regular visitors during this time of year, but the warblers are the main attraction. Why is the marshland so appealing to our feathered friends? Birds are reluctant to cross Lake Erie during migration until they have a chance to rest and refuel for the next part of their journey. The forested ridge along the southern edge of Lake Erie is like a resort for more than 150 species of migrating songbirds, including all 37 species of eastern wood warblers.

I’ve been curious to see this phenomenon ever since reading Jim McCormac’s accounts of Magee Marsh’s famous boardwalk and hearing about the Biggest Week in American Birding, a 10-day festival hosted by the Black Swamp Bird Observatory at Magee Marsh. Magee MarshThe event features workshops, guided birding activities, half-day birding bus tours, speakers, daily walks on the world-famous Magee Marsh boardwalk, birding by ear workshops, presentations on world birding, and bird identification classes. Last year alone, 77,000 birders from 47 states and 22 countries attended.

So when my mother suggested Magee Marsh as the destination for our Mother’s Day field trip, my mind darted back to what Fraser Heston, son of actor Charlton Heston, proclaimed while previewing the March 22 Charlton Heston Collection auction: “I pretty much won the parent lottery.”

Magee MarshMagee Marsh is a remnant of the Great Black Swamp, a nightmarish place about the size of Connecticut that once stretched from Sandusky to Fort Wayne. The uninhabitable swamp oozed mud, was covered with a dense forest and standing water, and was infested with mosquitoes that spread cholera, typhoid and malarial fevers. In the 1840s, farmers were determined to drain it and turn it into farmland. That historical event inspired Tracy Chevalier to write about it in her latest book, At the Edge of the Orchard.

By the end of the 19th century, Lake Erie’s marshes became known as some of the best waterfowl hunting areas in the United States. Some of the area was originally owned by John N. Magee of Elmore, Ohio, who intended to drain the marsh for farming, but was unsuccessful. He let the land revert back to natural marshland, and it became a private duck hunting club. In 1951, the Ohio Division of Wildlife purchased about 11,400 acres of coastal wetlands, including about 2,200 acres for the wildlife area and the protected marshes that surround it, and created the Magee Marsh Wildlife Area. It is said to attract over 150,000 visitors each year.

When we reached Oak Harbor, we knew we were in the right place when we saw dozens of vehicles entering and exiting Magee Marsh’s main entrance on State Route 2. Magee MarshFirst stop: The Black Swamp Bird Observatory, founded in 1992 to inspire people to appreciate, enjoy and conserve birds and their habitats. The place was jumping. People were buying field guides, picking up Biggest Week souvenirs, and browsing binoculars, spotting scopes and other birding gear in a series of tents known as Optics Alley. More people were standing at the Window on Wildlife, watching for orioles, grosbeaks, warblers and other songbirds visiting the feeders and water garden. Still more were in search of warblers on an easy walking trail that begins behind the building and meanders along the edge of woodland and meadows. We picked up our copy of Warblerstock, the visitors’ guide for this year’s Biggest Week in American Birding events, and continued to our next stop.

Even more people were congregating at the Sportsmen’s Migratory Bird Center, where Ohio Division of Wildlife biologists research wetland wildlife, including waterfowl, waterbirds and shorebirds, at the Crane Creek Wildlife Research Station. We parked in a lot filled with vehicles, many of which had bird-themed vanity license plates and bumper stickers.Magee Marsh

Outside, a huge checklist was posted next to the front door, indicating what birds had been seen in five different areas of the marsh during the last week.

Magee Marsh

Inside, weary birders lounged on sofas, refueled on doughnuts and coffee, and took in bird-related educational displays. Complimentary copies of Birds of Magee Marsh: A Field Checklist and a fact sheet that provided a general listing of when bird species are present at Magee Marsh during spring migration were available for the taking.Magee Marsh

When I saw a photo of birders on the boardwalk captioned “’Warbler Neck’ Explained” that was pinned to a bulletin board, my wandering mind concluded that a trip to Magee Marsh is not just about watching the birds. It’s also about watching the birdwatchers.

Magee MarshTo start our sightings, we considered taking a walking trail behind the center that traverses a swampy woodland and around small ponds, even offering views of a nesting bald eagle.Magee Marsh

Not much action there, though, so we decided to move on to the observation tower that provides views over the marsh.

Magee Marsh

We climbed to the top of the tower and saw groups of birders huddled around, occasionally using a spotter as they searched for bald eagles, peregrine falcons, osprey and hawks. No one said a word.

Magee Marsh

We continued one mile north across the marsh on the Magee Causeway. Birdwatchers were camped out along the road and in the marsh itself, on the lookout for swans, geese, ducks, herons, egrets, rails, marsh wrens and swamp sparrows.

Magee MarshWe got our fix of the sound of lapping waves along the beach on the north edge of the marsh, along the Wildlife Beach Trail.

Magee MarshIt’s said that the best birding is on the north edge of the woods. Some birders were camped out here, patiently peering into their scopes for a sighting of something big.

Magee Marsh

And then we reached what we had come to see: the famous boardwalk that meanders through seven acres of woodland on the beach ridge between Lake Erie and the marshes. It provides fantastic, eye-level views of dozens of species of warblers. This was going to be big.

Our first clue we were where we needed to be was the halved oranges hanging from the trees, just as I had read there would be. Insects are harder to find in spring, so orioles look for ripe fruit like oranges for sustenance. Caring birdwatchers cut the fruit in half to help the birds peck at the juice and pulp. If you’d like to make an orange feeder for your backyard, click here for instructions.

Magee MarshWe took the east entrance to the boardwalk.  The air was filled with musical sounds similar to the melodies of Franz Liszt’s Saint Francis of Assisi Preaching to the Birds and Ottorino Respighi’s The Birds

Magee Marsh

 Right away, we spotted a flock of birdwatchers, all intently focused on the trees.

Magee MarshWe are bird brains where bird species are concerned, so we watched and listened carefully to these die-hard birders to figure out what was transfixing them, quite.

The most common breeding warbler at Magee Marsh is the Yellow Warbler, who calls “Sweet-Sweet-I’m-So-Sweet!” Sure enough, there was one. It was duly marked on my field checklist.Magee MarshDick Berry, reporter for WTOL-TV in Toledo, and his cameraman strode by, talking intently about the angle they were going to take for their story. Click here to watch the video of what they turned in.Magee MarshNext came one Black-throated Green Warbler. Then, a robin’s nest. Six red-winged blackbirds. Best of all, a flock of birds swirling around on a birder’s nifty pair of leggings.

Magee Marsh

Many were all a-twitter over seeing a Scarlet Tanager on the boardwalk that day, sharing photos and exclaiming over their good fortune.

I exclaimed over my good fortune when I made the best spot of all: Kenn Kaufman, the legendary birder and author whom we met during a Biggest Week in American Birding-related exhibition at the Toledo Museum of Art two years ago (click here to read about that). He’s the one looking through binoculars in this photo.

Kenn Kaufman at Magee MarshKenn and his wife, Kimberly, are co-authors of a new book titled The Kaufman Field Guide to Nature of the Midwest. Click here to listen to them talk about the book on the April 13, 2016 edition of WOSU’s All Sides with Ann Fisher.

Kenn works hard to make a trip to Magee Marsh a memorable experience for all. He keeps a blog on which he makes predictions on what birds will be arriving at Magee Marsh, and when. This past Monday, he reported that more than 20 species of warblers were resting at Magee the day we were there, including some Cape May, Bay-breasted, Tennessee, Black-throated Green, and Blackburnian warblers. As of this writing, Kenn forecasted that current weather patterns point to tomorrow, Thursday, May 12, as the day for the biggest arrival of migrants this week; he thinks that they should remain through at least this coming Friday and Saturday.

He’s also eager to share his knowledge with others. While he was talking to us, Kenn alerted us to the call of a Sandhill Crane before he returned to festival headquarters at nearby Maumee Bay Lodge and Conference Center. We followed his lead.

Maumee Bay LodgeIn the lobby, we found the Birder’s Marketplace, a haven for bird- and nature-related items, from handicrafts and artwork to birding gear and information about international birding tours. Bird Watcher’s Digest had free back issues of the magazine for the taking. Besides offering a 20 percent discount on all of the books it had for sale, including field guides and Julie Zickefoose favorites, Houghton Mifflin had some stellar promotional materials, from bookmarks and trading cards touting the Kaufmans’ new book to five different fabulous temporary tattoos featuring bird illustrations from the Peterson Field Guide to Birds of North America.  I’m saving mine for just the right occasions.

Houghton Mifflin table, Birder's MarketplaceOther Biggest Week of American Birding events take place throughout the area. For example, Keep Looking: Fred Tomaselli’s Birds, an exhibition that continues at the Toledo Museum of Art through August 7, provides a selection of field guide works by Tomaselli, an artist and birder. Gallery talks, a poetry reading, a book signing, a bicycle ride, listening parties, family craft activities and screenings of The Blue Bird, a 1918 silent film, and the 1996 film, Fly Away Home, are planned. 

Magee MarshInternational Migratory Bird Day is being celebrated at Magee Marsh this Saturday, May 14. The Biggest Week in American Birding continues through Sunday, May 15, but birding at Magee Marsh is memorable any time of year. During the summer, herons, egrets, ducks and Canada geese can be spotted in the marsh and along the waterways. Several varieties of migrating songbirds return during fall migration. Flocks of migrating tundra swans arrive in late March and remain until the end of April. Controlled waterfowl hunting and the trapping of muskrats and other furry animals continue at the marsh today.

Magee Marsh is located 17 miles west of Port Clinton on State Route 2, and 10 miles north of Oak Harbor on State Route 19. The boardwalk is open daily from dawn to dusk. There is no entry fee.

Posted in Birds, Nature/Outdoors, Ohio | 1 Comment

Be A Real Aesthetic Paper Doll With Just A Snip, A Stitch And Some Lurex

For those who razz me about my on-the-road recycling program, your days of merriment may be over. If you’ve shopped for ladies’ clothes lately, you might know why the curtain may be coming down on that act.

Never before have I riffled through Von Maur’s markdown racks and walked away empty-handed, time and time again. The dreamy vision of Zac Posen’s “New Romantics” cotton sateen print shirt dress that I beheld in the Brooks Brothers window on the corner of the Avenue of the Americas and W. 51st St. turned into a horrific nightmare in the dressing room. For someone whose coworkers stop by to see what she’s wearing that day, this is a crisis indeed.

American AestheticsI forgot about my disaster recovery plan for continuing the business of my wardrobe for some recent brief shining moments on the Ohio State University campus, when I stopped by Campbell Hall’s Gladys Keller Snowden Gallery to see American Aesthetics, an Ohio State Historic Costume & Textiles Collection exhibition.

The exhibition featured the work of Geoffrey Beene, Bill Blass and Oscar de la Renta, fashion designers who created a trendsetting American aesthetic during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. After Beene’s first collection was featured in the cover of Vogue in September 1963, his tastes evolved from his popular sheath dress to soft-draping garments. Blass’s use of tailoring and luxurious fabrics created a classic look, while De la Renta was known for his dramatic colors and embellishments. When you think of fashion designers, your first thought might be of their high-end ready-to-wear lines. But this trio also sought to reach additional potential customers with lower-priced, more casual “bridge lines” like the “Beene Bag,” “Blassport” and “Miss O.”

My make-believe shopping spree began with the minimalist, A-line shifts that were so popular during the 1960s. Their monochromatic color schemes, creatively placed seams and stiff fabrics produced a simple, structured look. I’d live in Beene’s light blue linen dress, but when the occasion called for it, I’d also give an occasional turn to de la Renta’s navy-and-white cotton sleeveless ankle-length gown with circle motifs.

American Aesthetics

All three designers relied on ruffles to create a romantic look. When the occasion called for it, I’d be very happy to slip on Beene’s 1970s black organza strapless gown with stiff silk organza ruffles at the neckline and hem, but I’d have to bring along my luxurious begonia pink silk wrap in case of a chill.

American Aesthetics

I’ve loved Lurex sparkle ever since discovering it at Gorsuch during my Colorado ski adventure. In this process, metallic yarns are made by laminating or depositing the metal onto a film, which is then cut into thin strips for weaving. This makes the yarn less expensive and lighter than using gold or silver.  My knees went weak when I saw de la Renta’s 1960s A-line shift dress of light green silk with a silver Lurex Orientalist pattern with silver metallic braid trim. Oh, how I wished I could have taken this dreamy number home with me!

American Aesthetics

No shopping needed in the “Little Black Dressing” portion of the exhibition – I already have frocks very similar to Beene’s late-1960s black wool crepe sleeveless dress with full pleated skirt, as well as Blass’s 1960s sleeveless black heavy wool crepe princess seam dress with flared skirt and an attached beaded belt at the dropped waist.  But look how those rhinestone bows sparkle on those black satin pumps!

American Aesthetics

Unexpected combinations are a good way to jazz up a conservative bent for clothes. Beene introduced fabrics normally meant for everyday use, such as grey flannel and wool jersey, to evening gowns. De la Renta combined a V-neck argyle sweater with sequins. Blass paired practical corduroy with luxurious chiffon and covered sweaters with sequins. And I’d snap up this snappy set of a coat with fox collar, skirt, trousers, vest and scarf in brown and ivory wool Glen plaid with a matching paisley silk blouse, all designed by Blass for the 1975-1976 season. Imagine the variety of combinations I could create with this entire wardrobe in itself, I thought!American Aesthetics

I imagined spreading this dress with its bright blood-orange double knit short-sleeve bodice and brown wool tweed straight skirt out on my bed, picking the perfect pin and bracelet to wear with it.  Then, for a big reveal, I’d cover the whole thing up with a matching wool tweed A-line coat with an asymmetric one-button tab opening repeated at the wrists, all created by Blass for his 1967-1968 line.

American Aesthetics

Leave it to my CSG classmate Teddi’s aunt, Gladys Geanekopulos, to buy this sharp “Op Art” pattern coat and chemise dress ensemble of brown and beige wool plaid that Beene designed in 1966, displayed complete with a magazine advertisement for it. True tailored perfection!

American Aesthetics

Wait! What shoes would I wear with my new outfits? These two-tone beige Salvatore Ferragamo slingbacks would do very nicely indeed.

American Aesthetics

These Ferragamo gold metallic leather shoes would be just perfect with that Lurex number, but I reminded myself that I already have a similar, but more sensible bronze leather pair, custom-made for my “cookies.”

American Aesthetics

These outfits took care of what I’d wear to work or for special occasions, but what would I wear during my down time? My make-believe shopping spree continued in the Thompson Library Special Collections exhibition area, where five paper dresses from the Historic Costume & Textiles Collection were on display.

Paper dresses, you might ask? Why, yes, they were quite the fashion trend for a few years in the 1960s! For one dollar, you could order a simple A-line shift, made of cellulose pulp that was reinforced with a nylon webbing to improve durability and drape. Sleeveless and collarless, it fastened with ties or Velcro. It arrived with instructions for using scissors to cut the dress to the desired hem length, and for care — the dresses were not to be washed because soap and water caused them to lose their fire-resistance. “Be a real paper doll with just a snip and a stitch! It’s easy and fun to style your dress to match your mood!,” a vintage order form read.

The Campbell Soup Company’s Souper Dress printed with a repeat of the tomato soup cans that Andy Warhol had been painting since 1962.American Aesthetics

Mars of Asheville, North Carolina’s “Waste Basket Boutique” collection included the Yellow Pages dress, featuring a collage print design of Yellow Pages telephone book advertisements. A cap-sleeved paper dress with multicolored paisley and floral motifs came with matching paper fabric yardage, in case you wanted to make a complementary accessory.American Aesthetics

Now, how to fix my hair? I found the answer in a nearby display case filled with a collection of circa-1925 hair fashion ephemera related to the Marcel Waver metal curling iron manufactured by the Marcelwaver Co. of Cincinnati. Of course!

American Aesthetics

A decade ago, I fashioned my own version of a Marcel-waved ‘do, clipping large clamps into damp hair every night before bedtime and waking up to tightly waved tresses. Standing transfixed by the case, I pored over an accordion-style booklet of eight silver-print photos that showed the start-to-finish process for using the Marcel Waver, an instructional pamphlet, and an original curling iron that was used as a salesman’s sample.  Maybe it’s time to resurrect that phase.

American Aesthetics closed on April 30, so here’s one last look at that dreamy Lurex dress. Bookmark and check back on https://costume.osu.edu/ to see what the next exhibition will be.American Aesthetics

Posted in Fashion, Libraries, Museums, Ohio State University, Special Collections | Leave a comment